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Impresionism, Post-Romanticism, Modernism, Noucentisme

 The double bass was not fully developed as a standalone instrument and personality until the 18th century, but it was not until the 19th century, and under the Romanticims period, and with the explosion of the Opera, when this intrument did not start having their own role and a certain autonomy.


 However Giovanni Bottesini, was the key figure, and the main promoter of the instrument in his concert in the same way as were the violin and the cello. The projection and the impetus that experienced the Opera at the beginning of the 19th century, and the fact that Bottesini was director, producer and composer of operas throughout Europe, led him to Barcelona (1863) to oversee the production of Marion Delorme by Amilcare Ponchielli, and run the newly created Orquesta Simfònica del Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona (1847) from 1863 to 1866


 Giovanni Bottesini frequently brought his bass on stage, and during breaks and interruptions, he played fantasies on the opera represented that afternoon, so this they reported great popularity as much to him as the instrument. He broke with the tempos of the operas, and offered a playful show, enjoyable and sometimes comic, in the long opera afternoons.


 Artistic movements that were at the highest point in the stage of youth of Josep Cervera were varied, and all of them marked the character of all his compositions

-Modernism (late 19th-early 20th century). It was a cultural movement that took different denominations, Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Modern Style in England, Tiffany in the USA. Jugendstil in Germany or Austria to Secession Wienner. Opposed to conservatism of the bourgeoisie, this movement wanted to change the society through art, and this gave rise to a new aesthetics in that music should not necessarily be beautiful but authentic and therefore could also be unpleasant. In Catalonia was one of the most splendid eras, and was characterized by the wagnerianism and nationalism.


The most renowned composers both at national and international level Isaac Albeniz, Enric Morera, Lluis Millet, Enrique Granados, Amadeo Vives, Joan Lamote de Grignon, Robert Gerhard, Manuel Blancafort. Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinky.

-Impressionism (late 19th-early 20th century). Despite being basically a pictorial movement had its artistic expression in music and literature. It stands out to collect the now elusive impressions, the mobility of the most stable and the conceptual aspect of things. In the music is sought to try new combinations of instruments and therefore the search for new timbres that allow to express new sounds and colours as in the painting, thus dominated by melodic blends of tones, chords and figurations instead of a clear exposition of the subject. Some of the most famous composers are Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie, Frederic Mompou, Isaac Albeniz, Enrique Granados.


-Post-Romanticism (late 19th centruy-1st third of XXth century). It was an intellectual, artistic and musical movement that leads to most of the expressiveness of romanticism. It develops long melodies, use chromatic hues and takes full advantage of the resources orquestals. Prevail profane instrumental music and programmatical. As relevant composers of this movement are Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Anton Bruckner.


-Expressionism (first third of the 20th century). This movement sought to create a musical language, releasing the music, without key, letting the notes flow freely without the intervention of the composer. Schönberg and twelve-tone technique were the referents of the movement. The expressionist music sought the creation of a new musical language. Arnold Schoenberg's most prominent composer, where also it Anton von Webern, or Alban Werg.


-Noucentisme (first third of the 20th century). Cultural and ideological movement very much present in the first third of the 20th century, which proposed to implement a programme to modernize the society and politically catalanist. Characterized by the will of renewal of intellectuals and artists of the new century, in contrast to the previous century, and in particular to modernism. Their ideology is based on the values of reason, the precision, the serenity, the order, the extent, the clarity, doing a display of intellectual elitism. The  most recognized.composers are Eduard Toldrà and Jaume Pahissa.


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